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Global care chains also contribute to a larger, neo-colonial process – a “global care drain,” in which care is systematically extracted from people in poor countries and transferred to individuals in affluent nations . It is widely argued that neoliberal policies have created dramatic economic inequalities, both between the global North and global South and within countries in both hemispheres. One task for feminist political philosophers has been to identify the ways in which these policies reinforce specific inequalities based on gender, class, race, and nationality. In particular, feminists shed light on the disparate and often disproportionately burdensome consequences of neoliberal policies for specific groups of women. An additional, related task has been to identify the ways in which gendered practices and ideologies shape the processes of globalization. The second methodological commitment shared by feminist approaches to globalization is a sensitivity to context and concrete specificity.
In addition to the overall ranking, the report provides insight into specific human rights violations, highlighting which cities are most at risk. With global level opportunities available to all the countries, the field is wide open for the excellent companies, products and people from any remote part of the world to showcase their excellence and win over markets and contracts. There is pressure on everyone to continuously improve to meet the raised bar of expectations. The World Bank reports that integration with global capital markets can lead to disastrous effects, without sound domestic financial systems in place. Foreign Direct Investment’s impact on economic growth has had a positive growth effect in wealthy countries and an increase in trade and FDI, resulting in higher growth rates. This book provides brief expositions of the central concepts in the field of Global Studies.
Resources may become exhausted and the price of resources may rise as demand outstrips supply. External economies of scale include the benefits of positive externalities enjoyed by firms as a result of the development of an industry or the whole economy. For example, as an industry develops in a particular region an infrastructure of transport of communications will develop, which all industry members can benefit from.
As is common in contentious public debates, different people mean different things by the same word. So it is best to be clear at the outset of this article that I shall primarily refer to economic globalization–the expansion of foreign trade and investment. How does this process affect the wages, incomes and access to resources for the poorest people in the world? Political philosophers are concerned with the effects of these policies on human well-being.
The increasing working opportunities might sound appealing, but it is actually the opposite. Because wage policies are extremely low, or there are no policies at all, corporations can exploit their workers legally, by distributing inhumane wages which can be as little as 3 dollars a day. This does nothing but keeping these developing nations in poverty, and almost theoretically increasing poverty as the demand for this labor increases due to the increasing imports from the west, and decreasing the demand of well-paid jobs, which are operated in the west. Also, the working hours given to the workers are in humane, which can reach as high as “16 hours” . To stop the exploitation of these workers, we must certify goods in the standard of the national policy, and goods should only be sold if standards of production are met with domestic standards.
One the other hand, many developing countries are concerned about the rise of globalization because it might lead to destroy their own culture, traditional, identity, customs and their language. Many Arab countries such as Iraq, Syria, Lebanon and Jordan, as developing countries have affected negatively in some areas, their cultures, Developing Country Studies customs and traditional have been changed. They wear and behave like developed nations, a few people are wearing their traditional cloths that the used to.
Millions of new jobs have been created all over the world, new businesses set-up, new investments made as a result of Globalization policies. Even social progress indicators like enrollments in education, maternal & child mortality rates, average age etc. have vastly improved over past two decades. Participation of women workforce in economy and in other aspects of life has also improved.
Brands can become unpopular over time because of scandals, a decline in quality, or countless other reasons. When this happens, a name change can be a way of getting customers to shed those old, negative connotations. As time goes on, companies with more overt negative externalities have come under pressure—particularly in the era of ESG investing. In the case of the former, the switch to TotalEnergies was meant to signal the company’s shift beyond oil and gas to include renewable energy.
- We can still keep our nation back by harping upon the outdated ideologies that have become obsolete even in the regions where invented.
- What economic model taught in school takes into account a government ministry that stops work because it has run out of pens?
- When they could no longer roll over their debts, Latin American economies crashed, and a decade of stagnation resulted.
- American trade officials argue that they are not using tariffs to block poor countries from exporting, and they are right — the average tariff charged by the United States is a negligible 1.7 percent, much lower than other nations.
Over and over, they would be held hostage to the possibility that their business would up and leave, in order to find cheap labour in other parts of the world; they had to accept restraints on their salaries – or else. Opinion polls registered their strong levels of anxiety and insecurity, and the political effects were becoming more visible. Rodrik foresaw that the cost of greater “economic integration” would be greater “social disintegration”. Often they are tempted to withdraw from a multilateral approach and resort to blatant use of bargaining power of the national, economic and political competitive advantage.
Thus, Schutte insists that feminists must engage in methodological practices that de-center their habitual standpoints and foreground perspectives that challenge accepted ways of thinking . Khader extends this call, urging transnational feminists to reject the problematic variants of “Enlightenment liberal” values taken to be central to Western feminism, including individualism, autonomy, and gender-role eliminativism . Such values not only constitute cultural imperialism when imposed on cultural “others,” as Schutte argues, but also can serve to justify militarism, political domination, economic exploitation, and white supremacy in the name of advancing gender interests . Ackerly argues that feminist theory can be used not only to critique feminist ideals and values, but also to develop richer ways to evaluate the work done by women’s human rights organizations. Feminist theory is able to engage with, shape and be shaped by the work being done “on the ground” by NGOs and other groups . Some economists have a positive outlook regarding the net effects of globalization on economic growth.
This will certainly make globalization and its management more complex, but it is far better than trying to erect barriers in a vain attempt to stop irresistible, and potentially very beneficial, global forces. Globalization is a term that is used in many ways, but the principal underlying idea is the progressive integration of economies and societies. It is driven by new technologies, new economic relationships and the national and international policies of a wide range of actors, including governments, international organizations, business, labour and civil society. This can help developing nations increase overall employment but can be considered exploitation of nations with poor working conditions. Migration has accelerated along with the globalization of the economy and women comprise a higher proportion of migrants, especially labor migrants, and refugees than ever before. Feminist philosophical responses to the feminization of migration fall into three general lines of argument.
However, this reduction of transportation costs also has facilitated the international spread of viruses, bringing infectious diseases to all of humankind. The critical turning point – away from this system of trade balanced against national protections – came in the 1980s. Flagging growth and high inflation in the west, along with growing competition from Japan, opened the way for a political transformation.
Globalization detractors argue that it has created a concentration of wealth and power in the hands of a small corporate elite that can gobble up smaller competitors around the globe. Globalization also represents a trend toward the development of a single world culture. Even people who have zero sympathy for the May Day protesters who see them as the spoilt children of two generations of post-war peace and prosperity must feel uncomfortable about some aspects of what has come to be called globalisation problems. The healthcare system, cleanliness, Singapore Armed Forces, religious diversity and freedom, education system and Covid-19 pandemic management were among the aspects of Singapore that people were most proud of.